Chloroquine was first discovered in the 1930s in Germany and began to be widely used as an anti-malaria post-World War II, in the late 1940s. However, resistance to the drug also rapidly emerged, with the first cases of not being cured by administration of chloroquine being reported in the 1950s. What are the most common side effects of plaquenil How expensive is plaquenil per pill Current status of drug-resistant malaria 10 3. Causes of resistance 12 3.1 Definition of antimalarial drug resistance 12 3.2 Malaria treatment failure 12 3.3 Mechanisms of antimalarial resistance 12 3.3.1 Chloroquine resistance 12 3.3.2 Antifolate combination drugs 13 3.3.3 Atovaquone 13 3.4 Factors contributing to the spread of resistance 13 Persons acquiring P. vivax infections in Papua New Guinea or Indonesia should initially be treated with a regimen recommended for chloroquine-resistant P. vivax infections. The treatment regimens for chloroquine-resistant P. vivax infections are quinine sulfate plus doxycycline or tetracycline, or, atovaquone-proguanil, or artemether. Chloroquine has been the backbone of vivax treatment regimens since its inception and chloroquine together with primaquine was the standard therapy for vivax malaria on the understanding that P. vivax was universally sensitive to chloroquine. The first patient with chloroquine resistant vivax malaria was reported from Papua New Guinea in 1989. Nowadays, other drugs, and notably ones containing artemisinin-based compounds, are preferentially used to treat uncomplicated malaria and especially in areas where chloroquine resistance is known to occur. Since then, resistance has spread rapidly (since obviously it is beneficial to the parasite to be resistant, so various mutations conferring this protection have arisen multiple times in different areas in the world and also been passed on preferentially to new generations of malaria parasites), and now chloroquine resistant are found in multiple locations in south-east Asia, such as Myanmar and India, as well as from Guyana in South America. Chloroquine resistant vivax malaria treatment Treatment of Malaria – Malaria Site, CDC - Malaria - Diagnosis & Treatment United States. Chloroquine for hpv Treatment of uncomplicated malaria due to susceptible strains of P. falciparum, P.malariae, P. ovale, and P.vivax. Prophylaxis of malaria in geographic areas where resistance to Chloroquine is not present. Treatment of extraintestinal amebiasis. Chloroquine phosphate tablets do not prevent relapses in patients with vivax or ovale malaria. Chloroquine - FDA prescribing information, side effects and uses. Primaquine in vivax malaria an update and review on.. Radical cure PVIVAX - Malaria. Background. Chloroquine is the first-line treatment for Plasmodium vivax malaria in most endemic countries, but resistance is increasing. Monitoring of antimalarial efficacy is essential, but in P vivax infections the assessment of treatment efficacy is confounded by relapse from the dormant liver stages. For the treatment of uncomplicated malaria due to chloroquine-sensitive P vivax or P ovale, concomitant treatment with primaquine phosphate is recommended.-Current guidelines should be consulted for additional information. Usual Adult Dose for Amebiasis Ethiopia has the highest proportion of vivax malaria, approximately 40% of all malaria infections, in contrast to African countries. Chloroquine CQ is the drug of choice for the treatment of Plasmodium vivax infection in the country, although CQ resistant P. vivax CRPv has started to challenge the efficacy of the drug.